Steps in Program Development

Steven Spielberg

Computer programming is an art. Many people believe that a programmer must be good at mathematics, have a memory for figures and technical information, and be prepared to spend many hours sitting at a computer, typing programs. However, given the right tools and steps to follow, anyone can write well designed programs. It is a task worth doing, as it is both stimulating and fulfilling.

Programming can be defined as the development of a solution to and identified problem, and the setting up of a related series of instructions that, when directed through computer hardware, will produce the desired results. It is the first part of this definition that satisfies the programmer’s creative needs; that is, to design a solution to an identified problem. Yet this step is so often overlooked. Leaping straight into the coding phase without first designing a proper solution usually results in a program that contains many errors. Often the programmer then needs to spend a significant amount of time finding these errors and correcting them. A more experienced programmer will design a solution to the program first, desk check this solution, and then code the program in a chosen programming language.

These are seven basic steps in the development of a program, as follows.

1. Define the problem

This step involves carefully reading and rereading the problem until you understand completely what is required. To help with this initial analysis, the problem should be divided into three separate components: the inputs, the outputs, the processing steps to produce the required outputs. A defining diagram is recommended in this analysis phase, as it helps to separate and define the three components.

2. Outline the solution

Once the problem has been defined, you may decide to break it down into smaller tasks or steps, and establish solution outline. This initial outline is usually a rough draft of the solution. The solution outline may also include a hierarchy or structure chart.

3. Develop the outline into an algorithm

The solution outline developed in Step 2 is then expanded into an algorithm: a set of precise steps that describe exactly the tasks to be performed and the order in which they are to be carried out. This book uses pseudocode to represent the solution algorithm.

4. Test the algorithm for correctness

This step is one of the most important in the development of a program and yet it is the step most often bypassed. The main purpose of desk checking the algorithm is to identify major logic errors early, so that they may be easily corrected. Test data needs to be walked through each step in the algorithm to check that the instructions described in the algorithm will actually do what they supposed to.

5. Code the algorithm into a specific programming language

Only after all design considerations in the previous four steps have been met should you actually start to code the program into your chosen programming language.

6. Run program on the computer

This step uses a program compiler and programmer-designed test data to machine test the code for syntax error and logic error. This is usually the most rewarding step in the program development process. This step may need to be performed several times until you are satisfied that the program is running as required.

7. Document and maintain the program

Program documentation should not be listed as the last step in the program development process, as it is really an ongoing task form the initial definition of the problem to the final test result. Documentation includes both external documentation and internal documentation that may have been coded in the program.

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